Everyday life of modern man has risks associated with mental and physical health. Numerous commitments, high ambitions for growth in the professional hierarchy, devastating perfectionism, chronic exhaustion and an increasing distraction from nature.
Slowly but surely, we climb into a stress dead end, forgetting how to relax and rest from time to time without remorse.
Stress, exhaustion and tension combined with unhealthy eating, most of the day in a closed room, lack of physical activity are the main predisposing factors for the development of depression, anxiety, various obsessions, alcoholism, compulsive overeating, etc.
The lack of timely measures to address the problem alternatively (limiting bad habits, improving diet plan, taking vitamins, minerals, medicinal plants and herbs, meditation, etc.) Is one of the main reasons for the need for antidepressants, as one of their main representatives, namely Citalopram, finds wide popularity.
What is Citalopram?
In fact, the drug belongs to a large group of antidepressants that different mechanisms affect the structure of the brain, the synthesis and secretion of certain neurotransmitters and important substances, thus regulating mood.
Antidepressants are divided into several main groups, and Citalopram belongs to the group of so-called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
This relatively new, modern group also includes sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, also widely used for the treatment of various mental and behavioral disorders.
The main mechanism by which drugs in this group perform their main effects involves suppressing serotonin reuptake in the brain and thus achieving higher extracellular levels of a substance also known as the happiness hormone.
Citalopram treatment is carried out by appointment of a specialist, and the dose and duration of treatment are determined individually depending on the patient’s condition, severity of manifestations, the presence of major diseases, a number of individual characteristics, etc.
The mechanism of action of Citalopram.
Citalopram hydrobromide is a highly selective and powerful serotonin reuptake inhibitor (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) with minimal effect on neuronal reuptake and dopamine. It is believed that the ability of Citalopram to enhance serotonergic activity in the Central nervous system by inhibiting the reuptake of neurons of serotonin is responsible for its antidepressant action.
The average half-life is 35 hours. It may take 7 to 8 days to clear the system.
Stationary plasma levels of Citalopram hbr are usually reached after 1-2 weeks. Improvement of symptoms of depression can be seen in 1-4 weeks.
If possible, it is recommended to gradually reduce the dose, rather than abrupt cessation. If there are unacceptable symptoms after dose reduction or discontinuation of treatment, you can consider resuming the previous dose. Further dose reduction can be carried out more gradually.
SSRI antidepressants present a low risk of fatal poisoning when taken in combination with alcohol. Clinical studies have shown that Citalopram does not potentiate the cognitive and motor effects of alcohol. However, the simultaneous use of alcohol and Citalopram is not recommended due to the possible effect of depressant supplements.
Forms of release and dosage of Citalopram.
The drug exists in a variety of dosage forms (solid and liquid), most often in the form of tablets (or less capsules) for oral administration, in different doses (10, 20 and 40 milligrams) or as a solution in a dose of 10 milligrams in 5 milliliters.
As a rule, the course of treatment begins with an initial dose of 10 to 20 milligrams (different in each patient) and gradually increases to an effective dose, which leads to suppression of the symptoms of the condition. The maintenance dose in a large percentage of patients is about 40 milligrams.
The maximum daily dose is about 60 milligrams, controlling the condition of patients.
Doses of more than 40 milligrams usually do not show much greater efficacy than 40 milligrams per day, but under certain conditions and under medical supervision, similar high doses are prescribed.
It is not recommended to change the dose or frequency of use due to the risk of severe withdrawal syndrome with a sharp discontinuation of administration, toxicity at recommended doses and no effect at lower doses. Always take medicine as directed by your doctor.
The main use of antidepressants is depressive episodes, depending on their severity and duration, appropriate drugs are administered in appropriate doses.
Citalopram is used to treat mild to moderate depression (other types of antidepressants are used in severe forms).
In addition to the treatment of depression, the drug is used in the following other conditions:
generalized developmental disorder;
paranoid personality disorder;
mixed obsessive thoughts and actions;
recurrent depressive disorder;
panic disorder (episodic paroxysmal anxiety);
obsessive-compulsive disorder with the prevalence of compulsive acts (compulsive rituals);
certain eating disorders;
some patients are used to treat chronic pain;
in some patients, it is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
The drug is taken under medical supervision, and careful monitoring of the patient’s condition is recommended in the first few months of therapy, because some patients may be obsessive thoughts of suicide and suicide attempts (especially in young people suffering from certain forms of depression).
The dose and duration of therapy are adapted to the individual condition of the patient, and no changes in the treatment plan are recommended.
Citalopram side effects.
During treatment with antidepressants, various adverse effects are possible: from mild gastric discomfort to severe, life-threatening reactions (usually as a result of overdose, accidental or intentional), different severity and frequency are possible.
If signs of an allergic reaction (hypersensitivity) to the drug appear, seek medical attention immediately. Symptoms include rash, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, swelling of the face, tongue, lips and blurred vision, pain and / or swelling of the eyes, severe headaches, dizziness, fainting, significantly increased heart rate, extreme fever, tremor, hallucinations.
Common side effects seen with Citalopram include:
difficulty concentrating and poor memory;
nausea, with or without vomiting;
increased gas formation, diarrhea;
sleep disorders (insomnia);
changes in weight (more often there is an increase in weight);
change in libido;
When overdoses are many times higher than the recommended daily doses, there is nausea, vomiting, weakness, pronounced sweating, bruising on the skin, loss of consciousness, severe tremor, extreme acceleration of the heart rate, it is necessary to call for timely medical care and take appropriate measures to detoxify the body.
The use of antidepressants and treatment with Citalopram requires regular preventive examinations and physical studies to reduce the risk of possible side effects and achieve optimal activity and effectiveness of therapy.